Anatomy of the V2 missile

For more detailed images see the image gallery at the bottom of this post

The eighteen pot injector head.

This is the first image blog from Alexsander Savochkin in what we hope will become an expanding resource for those wishing to find out more about the design and construction of the A4/V2 missile.  The precise 3D CAD model imagery is based exclusively on original drawings produced in Germany from 1940 to 1945. When enough material has been uploaded we will create a fixed menu item called ‘Anatomy of the V2‘ where we hope to be able to offer coverage of the entire missile in detailed 3D models like the ones shown here – Robert J. Dalby, editor in chief, V2 Rocket History.com

V2 rocket engine 18-pot Head: Top
View of injector head showing liquid propellant (LOX and fuel) diffuser cups and head fuel valve seating ring at centre, (see other images for insert and position nomenclature). Visible immediately below the valve seat are the large connecting holes that allow fuel to flow from the inlet manifold and cooling jacket to the injector space (some brass injector inserts can be seen through the holes) after the head fuel valve is released to be opened by the turbo-pump supply pressure. The four veil cooling inlet connectors are well shown as are two of the outlet connection holes immediately above them. 3D model by Alexander Savochkin
18-pot Head Fuel Valve Seat close-up
A close-up view of the head fuel valve mounting flange (showing 12 fastener holes). Visible immediately below the top flange are the large connecting holes that allow fuel to flow from the inlet manifold and cooling jacket to the injector space (some brass injector inserts can be seen through the holes) after the head fuel valve is released to be opened by the turbo-pump supply pressure.
V2 rocket 18-pot Head Underside
Inverted view of injector head showing liquid propellant (LOX and fuel) diffuser cups, (see other images for insert and position nomenclature). Of note in this image are the pointing angles of the cups, positioned on a parabolic section to focus the propellant nebular stream into the central axis of the combustion space. Also of note are the large areas between each cup NOT employed in the injection process leading to structured propellant mixing as opposed to even homogeneous mixing. The four veil cooling inlet connectors are well shown. 3D model by Alexander Savochkin
18-pot Head: Underside close-up detail
Underside view of injector head showing liquid propellant (LOX and fuel) diffuser cups, (see other images for insert and position nomenclature). Of note in this image are the pointing angles of the cups, positioned on a parabolic section to focus the propellant nebular stream into the central axis of the combustion space. Also of note are the large areas between each cup NOT employed in the injection process – initiating \’clumpy\’ and uneven propellant mixing initially below the injector face but also carried forward into the combustion space. The LOX spray head is shown in the centre of each cup. 3D model by Alexander Savochkin
18-pot head: Cutaway 2
Here the 18-pot head model has been cut away to show the fuel cooling and fuel delivery spaces. the cooling jacket layer can be seen in the lowermost area of the head – below the centrally positioned fuel valve seat, between each cup at the lowest point, and running down toward the first set of veil cooling pores and the topmost coolant distributor ring. Note that the veil cooling system does not communicate with the regenerative cooling jacket and has its own feed pipes drawing fuel from the head injector space and not the cooling space. Visible immediately above the valve seat are the large connecting holes that allow fuel to flow from the inlet manifold and cooling jacket to the injector space after the head fuel valve is released to be opened by the turbo-pump supply pressure. 3D model by Alexander Savochkin
18-pot Upper Veil Manifold detail
Close-up detail showing independent pathway for fuel passing into injector head and fuel passed down from the head to be used for veil cooling system. Fig. A shows vertical passages for overall fuel feed to the head and Fig.B shows horizontal pathway for veil coolant fed from the head via the veil coolant distributor ring or manifold. 3D model by Alexander Savochkin
18-pot Cutaway 1
Liquid propellant (LOX and fuel) diffuser cup, showing three rings or echelons (A, D,& E) of brass injector inserts as well as two rows of drilled fuel feed holes. The LOX spray head is shown in the centre. Note the simple ‘shower head or watering can’ design of the LOX diffuser. A sealing washer can be seen fitted between the LOX diffuser and the steel cup. 3D model by Alexander Savochkin
18-pot Head: Top Plate removed to show cores
View of the top of the injector head, with outer cups and pressed steel capping piece removed, showing, propellant diffuser inner cores with injector inserts and LOX supply pipe connection thread. The LOX spray head can be seen inside the LOX pipe connector. The swirl caps of fuel injector inserts in positions A, D,& E can be seen clearly on the outside of the cores and the two rows of drilled fuel feed holes are also well shown. 3D model by Alexander Savochkin
V2 Fuel and LOX Diffuser Cup general view
General view of the propellant diffuser cup inner core. The swirl caps of fuel injector inserts in positions A, D,& E can be seen clearly on the outside of the core as well as the central holes in the 3304D (red) inserts. The two rows of drilled fuel feed holes are also well shown. 3D model by Alexander Savochkin

Click the above video to see an animation of the diffuser cup inner core (the animation may take a few seconds to show at maximum resolution).

Fuel And LOX Diffuser Cup Cutaway 1
This image shows a burner cup from outer Ring I of the injector head and the cutaway shows injector insert echelon A, D, & E as well as two rows of drilled feed holes. Four fuel injector insert types can be seen: Top, A = 2131E, lower D, = 3303D (white), lowest E, = 3304D (red), and E, = 3305D (blue). 3D model by Alexander Savochkin
Fuel And LOX Diffuser Cup Cutaway 3
Cutaway showing echelon A with 2-part 2131E fuel injector inserts at the top of a propellant diffuser cup. Note the close proximity of the injector inserts to the simple ‘watering can’ type LOX spray head. One row of drilled fuel feed holes can be seen below the inserts. 3D model by Alexander Savochkin
Lower section Fuel And LOX Diffuser Cup Cutaway 2
This images shows a cutaway of a burner cup from outer Ring I of the injector head and shows injector insert echelon D, & E as well as one row of drilled feed holes. Three fuel injector insert types can be seen: Top D, = 3303D (white), lower E, = 3304D (red), and E, = 3305D (blue). 3D model by Alexander Savochkin
V2 engine Fuel And LOX Diffuser cup - Internal and external
One of the 18 liquid propellants (LOX and fuel) diffuser cups, showing three rows or echelons (A, D,& E) of brass fuel injector inserts as well as two rows of drilled fuel feed holes. The LOX spray head is shown in the centre. 3D model by Alexander Savochkin
18-pot head Exploded to show 1100+ Parts
Exploded view showing some of the 1100 parts required for the complicated 18-pot injector head of the V2 25-ton thrust rocket engine. 3D model by Alexander Savochkin

The image gallery below has all the above pictures in higher resolution, some with additional text, as well as additional pictures not included in this post.

 

Alexander Savochkin
About Alexander Savochkin 1 Article
A tutor in computer-aided design at Moscow State Technical University, Alexander Savochkin says he finds relaxation in transcribing 75-year-old missile plans into modern 3D CAD models. He lives with his very patient wife in the leafy suburbs of Moscow.