The eighteen pot injector head.
This is the first image blog from Alexsander Savochkin in what we hope will become an expanding resource for those wishing to find out more about the design and construction of the A4/V2 missile. The precise 3D CAD model imagery is based exclusively on original drawings produced in Germany from 1940 to 1945. When enough material has been uploaded we will create a fixed menu item called ‘Anatomy of the V2‘ where we hope to be able to offer coverage of the entire missile in detailed 3D models like the ones shown here – Robert J. Dalby, editor in chief, V2 Rocket History.com
Click the above video to see an animation of the diffuser cup inner core (the animation may take a few seconds to show at maximum resolution).
The image gallery below has all the above pictures in higher resolution, some with additional text, as well as additional pictures not included in this post.
Relic of main alcohol valve with manufacturer code aeq (aeq = Bartoc & Co., Maschinenfabrik u. Giesserei Hedwikow,bei Caslau (Caslav) Czech Republic). An air (nitrogen) inlet pressure of 440 to 530 psi (30 to 36 Bar) was required to close this valve against its internal spring and the force of the turbo-pump. The large nut at the top is the connection for the fuel return (or 'revolving'line) pipe, and the air and electrical input ports can be seen to the right (air), and left (elec.) just below this point. V2RH image
Relic of main alcohol valve with manufacturer code aeq (aeq = Bartoc & Co., Maschinenfabrik u. Giesserei Hedwikow,bei Caslau (Caslav) Czech Republic). An air (nitrogen) inlet pressure of 440 to 530 psi (30 to 36 Bar) was required to close this valve against its internal spring and the force of the turbo-pump. The large nut to the right is the connection for the return (or 'revolving'line) pipe. The valve is shown in the closed position. V2RH image
HAP11 drawing of standard 3304D fuel injector screw insert. showing details of primary swirl cavity and orrifice and all additional apertures including the four small cooling pores. HAP11 (Heimat-Artillerie-Park 11, AKA armament code: mpe), drawing number 4554D, Deutsches Museum München
HVP drawing no 1203D showing burner cup 'diffuser system' disposition for 19-pot head (at this stage the 25 ton thrust injector head had nineteen so called 'pre-chambers' or pots as no central fuel valve was present). HVP drawing dated 1939.
Drawing from the Army Experimental Station Peenemünde dated 1939. The specification describes an insert template that could be used for a range of outlet and inlet orifice sizes. The German text beginning (eingedrehte ...) translates as 'Center-line of screw used for holes to be drilled later', and the hole dimensions are not specified on this document. HVP drawing number 1113 E, Deutsches Museum München
Diagram showing cut-away presentations of the settled configuration of standard four 'swirl' inserts used in the V2 rocket engine's 18-pot head from 1943 until the end of the war. The inserts are shown with their drawing code identification. All of the insert types used in the injector head are shown, however there were additional screw-in type fuel supply inserts, used to provide a fuel cooling balance function, located radially in the lower part of the combustion cavity.
Single nozzle insert test rig used by V2 Rocket History to test spray shape and volume at fluid supply pressures consistent with fuel pressures specified for the injector head of summer 1944. A 2131E fuel injector insert is installed in the holder at the front of the test rig, but as the thread was the same on all inserts the nozzle can be changed for other models easily with aid of a pin spanner. See video for a demonstration of this simple test system.
Single nozzle insert test rig used by V2 Rocket History to test spray shape and volume at supply pressures consistent with fuel pressures specified for the injector head of summer 1944. The test system features an adjustable pressure regulator and fluid pressure gauge. For test purposes the device was simply connected to a relatively high pressure mains water supply. And although water does not have the same viscosity of the 75% Ethenol to 25% water mix of the V2's fuel it was considered close enough by the German technicians, who regularly used plain water as a substitute when testing issues related to furl flow rather than combustion. A 2131E fuel injector insert is shown installed in the holder at the front of the rig, but as the thread was the same on all inserts the nozzle can be changed for other models easily with aid of a pin spanner. See video for a demonstration of this simple test system.
Sectioned general assembly view of the V2 turbo-pump (TP) dated September 1942. This image has been edited to show TP and document data closer together than the original.
Relics of the A4 25-ton 1941 aluminium injector head. See other photos in this series for more detail. Photo courtesy Horst Beck Collection
Part of the 'Standard' series A aluminium head from 1941 to early 1942. Showing the position of standard type LOX injector. The brass fuel injector inserts type and position pattern on the relic seem to be of the standard type with the row of 3 inlet aperture type inserts positioned furthest from the LOX injector. Photo courtesy Horst Beck Collection
Injector head relic from February 1945 showing injector insert type and pattern. Photo www.v2rockethistory.com
This photo shows a presentation of important vales from the A4-V2 missile. From the left: Main alcohol/B stoff valve (from the centre of injector head. Alcohol tank valve. Main LOX valve (with sub valve). Alcohol (B stoff) tank pressuring valve. Image courtesy Horst Beck Collection
Trade literature advert for the Preschona company (Adolf Meyer) in Berlin, Germany. The company was a supply contractor and (among other items) manufactured the non-return valve for the steam turbine exhaust heat exchanger, employed to volatilise a small portion of liquid oxygen (LOX) to pressurise the LOX tank to maintain critical flow volume to the LOX turbo-pump.